Publications

Here you can download .pdf files of recent publications by members of the Paleoecology Lab. The publications are listed in chronological order.

Lu, H.Y., Wu, N.Q., Liu, K.B., Zhu, L.P., Yang, X.D., Yao, T.D., Wang, L., Li, Q., Liu, X.Q., Shen, C.M., Li, X.Q., Tong, G.B., and Jiang, H., 2011. “Modern pollen distributions in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and the development of transfer functions for reconstructing Holocene environmental changes”, Quaternary Science Reviews 30: 947-966. Download PDF

Wang, W., Ma, Y.Z., Feng, Z.D., Narantsetseg, Ts., Liu, K.B., and Zhai, X.W., 2011. “A prolonged dry mid-Holocene climate revealed by pollen and diatom records from Lake Ugii Nuur in central Mongolia”, Quaternary International 229: 74-83. Download PDF

Liu, K.B., Lu, H.Y., and Shen, C.M., 2009. “Some fundamental misconceptions about paleotempestology”, Quaternary Research 71: 253-254. Download PDF

Cochran, D.M., Reese, C.A., and Liu, K.B., 2009. “Tropical Storm Gamma and the Mosquitia of eastern Honduras: A little-known story from the 2005 hurricane season”, Area 41: 425-434. Download PDF

Lu, H.Y., Zhang, J.P., Liu, K.B., Wu, N.Q., et al., 2009. “Earliest domestication of common millet (Panicum miliaceum) in East Asia extended to 10,000 years ago”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) 106(18): 7367-7372. Download PDF

Lu, H.Y., Zhang, J.P., Wu, N.Q., Liu, K.B., Xu, D.K., and Li, Q., 2009. “Phytolith analysis for the discrimination of Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) and Common millet (Panicum miliaceum)”, PLoS ONE 4(2):  e4448.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0004448 Download PDF

Kiage, L.M., and Liu, K.B., 2009. “Palynological evidence of climate change and land degradation in the Lake Baringo area, Kenya, East Africa, since AD 1650”, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 279: 60-72. Download PDF

Bianchette, T.A., Liu, K.B., Lam, N.S-N., and Kiage, L.M., 2009. “Ecological Impacts of Hurricane Ivan on the Gulf Coast of Alabama: A Remote Sensing Study”, Journal of Coastal Research, SI 56: 1622-1526.

Lam, N.S.-N., Arenas, H., Li, Z., and Liu, K.B., 2009. “An estimate of population impacted by climate change along the U. S. coast”, Journal of Coastal Research, SI 56: 1522-1526.

Liu, K.B., Lu, H.Y., and Shen, C.M., 2008. “A 1,200-year proxy record of hurricanes and fires from the Gulf of Mexico coast: Testing the hypothesis of hurricane-fire interactions”, Quaternary Research 69: 29-41. Download PDF

Liu, K.B. and Fan, D.D., 2008. “Will global warming lead to enhanced tropical cyclone activity? Advances in paleotempestology and their implications”, Chinese Science Bulletin 53: 1489-1502. Download PDF

Reese, C.A., Strange, T.P., Lynch, W.D., and Liu, K.B., 2008. “Geologic evidence of Hurricane Katrina recovered from the Pearl River Marsh, MS/LA”, Journal of Coastal Research 24: 1601-1607. Download PDF

Shen, C., Liu, K.B., Tang, L., and Overpeck, J.T., 2008. “Numerical analyses of modern and fossil pollen data from the Tibetan Plateau”, Annals of the Association of American Geographers 98(4): 755-772. Download PDF

Shen, C., Liu, K.B., Morrill, C., Overpeck, J.T., Peng, J., and Tang, L., 2008. “Ecotone shift and major droughts during the mid-late Holocene in the central Tibetan Plateau”, Ecology 89: 1079-1088. Download PDF

Ma, Y.Z., Liu, K.B., Feng, Z.D., Sang, Y.L., Wang, W., and Sun, A.Z., 2008. “A survey of modern pollen and vegetation along a south-north transect in Mongolia”, Journal of Biogeography 35: 1512-1532. Download PDF

Elsner, J.B., Jagger, T.H., and Liu, K.B., 2008: Comparison of hurricane return levels using historical and geological records, Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 47: 368-374. Download PDF

Rohli, R.V. and Liu, K.B., 2008. “Citation of research in journals of interest to applied geographers”, Applied Geography 28: 151-167. Download PDF

Liu, K.B., 2007. “Uncovering prehistoric hurricane activity”, American Scientist 95: 126-133. Download PDF

Liu, K.B., 2007. “Paleotempestology”. In: Elias, S. (ed.), Encyclopedia of Quaternary Science. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 1978-1986. Download PDF

Liu, K.B., Reese, C.A., and Thompson, L.G., 2007. “A potential pollen proxy for ENSO derived from the Sajama ice core”, Geophysical Research Letters 34, L09504, doi:10.1029/2006GL029018 Download PDF

Kiage, L.M., Liu, K.B., Walker, N., Lam, N.S.N., Huh, O., 2007. “Recent land-cover/use change associated with land degradation in the Lake Baringo catchment, Kenya, East Africa: evidence from Landsat TM and ETM+”, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 1-25, doi: 10.1080/01431160701241753 Download PDF

Tornqvist, T.E., Paola, C., Parker, G., Liu, K.B., Mohrig, D., Holbrook, J.M., and Twilley, R.R., 2007, “Comment on ‘Wetland Sedimentation from Hurricanes Katrina and Rita’”, Science 316: 201. (Full text at www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/316/5822/201b)

Cheung, K.F., Tang, L.J., Donnelly, J.P., Scileppi, E.M., Liu, K.B., Mao, X.Z., Houston, S.H., and Murnane, R.J., 2007. “Numerical modeling and field evidence of coastal overwash in southern New England from Hurricane Bob and implications for paleotempestology”, Journal of Geophysical Research 112, F03024, doi: 10.1029/2006JF000612 Download PDF

Frappier, A., Knutson, T., Liu, K.B., and Emanuel, K., 2007. “Perspective: coordinating paleoclimate research on tropical cyclones with hurricane-climate theory and modelling”, Tellus A, doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0870.2007.00250.x Download PDF

Xu, G.D., Fan, D.D., and Liu, K.B., 2007. “Advances in the study of paleotempestology”, Advances in Earth Sciences 22: 1274-1280.

Brklacich, M., Brown, I.F., Campos, E.J.D., Krusche, A., Lavell, A., Liu, K.B., Jimenez-Osornio, J., Reyes-Knoche, S., Wood, C., 2007. “Stakeholders and global environmental change science”, In: Tiessen, H., Brklacich, M., Breulmann, G., and Menezes, R.S.C. (eds.), Communicating Global Change Science to Society: An Assessment and Case Studies. Island Press, Washington, D.C., pp. 21-34.

Lu, H.-Y., Wu, N.-Q., Liu, K.B., Jiang, H., and Liu, T.-S., 2007. “Phytoliths as quantitative indicators for the reconstruction of past environmental conditions in China II: palaeoenvironmental reconstruction in the Loess Plateau”, Quaternary Science Reviews 26: 759-772. Download PDF

Liu, K.B. y Colinvaux, P.A., 2007. “Cambios en los bosques de la Cuenca Amazónica durante el Último Máximo Glacial”, In: Leigh, E.C. Jr., Herre, E.A., Jackson, J.B.C., and Santos-Granero, F. (eds), Ecología y Evolución en los Trópicos. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama, pp. 333-336 (Spanish-language translation of 1985 Nature paper by Liu and Colinvaux).

Feng, Z.D., Tang, L.Y., Ma, Y.Z., Zhai, Z.X., Wu, H.N., Li, F., Zou, S.B., Yang, Q.L., Wang, W.G., Derbyshire, E., and Liu, K.B., 2007. “Holocene vegetation variations and associated environmental changes during marine isotope stage 3 in the western part of the Chinese Loess Plateau”, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 246: 278-291. Download PDF

Feng, Z.D., Zhai, X.W., Ma, Y.Z., Huang, C.Q., Wang, W.G., Zhang, H.C., Khosbayar, P., Narantsetseg, T., Liu, K.B., and Rutter, N.W., 2007. “Eolian environmental changes in the northern Mongolian Plateau during the past ~35,000 yr”, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 245: 505-517. Download PDF

Kiage, L.M. and Liu, K.B., 2006. “Late Quaternary paleoenvironmental changes in East Africa: A review of multi-proxy evidence from palynology, lake sediments, and associated records”, Progress in Physical Geography 30: 633-658. Download PDF

Fogarty, E.A., Elsner, J.B., Jagger, T.H., Liu, K.B., and Louie, K.S., 2006. “Variations in typhoon landfalls over China”, Advances in Atmospheric Sciences 23(5): 665-677. Download PDF

Morrill, C., Overpeck, J.T., Cole, J.E., Liu, K.B., Shen, C., and Tang, L., 2006. “Holocene variations in the Asian monsoon inferred from the geochemistry of lake sediments in central Tibet”, Quaternary Research 65(2): 232-243. Download PDF

Shen, C., Liu, K.B., Tang, L., and Overpeck, J.T., 2006. “Quantitative relationships between modern pollen rain and climate in the Tibetan Plateau”, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 140: 61-77. Download PDF

Feng, Z.D., Tang, L.Y., Wang, H.B., Ma, Y.Z., and Liu, K.B., 2006. “Holocene vegetation variations and associated environmental changes in the western part of the Chinese Loess Plateau”, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 241: 440-456. Download PDF

Lu, H.-Y., Wu, N.-Q., Yang, X.-D., Jiang, H., Liu, K.B., Liu, T.-S., 2006. “Phytoliths as quantitative indicators for the reconstruction of past environmental conditions in China I: phytolith-based transfer functions”, Quaternary Science Reviews 25: 945-959. Download PDF

Liu, K.B., Reese, C.A., and Thompson, L.G., 2005. “Ice-core pollen record of climatic changes in the central Andes during the last 400 years”, Quaternary Research 64(2): 272-278.Download PDF

Lu, H.Y., Yang, X.Y., Ye, M.L., Liu, K.B., Xia, Z.K., Ren, X.Y., and Cai, L.H., Wu, N.Q., and Liu, T.S., 2005. “Millet noodles in Late Neolithic China”, Nature 437: 967-968.Download PDF

Lu, H.Y. and Liu, K.B., 2005. “Phytolith assemblages as indicators of coastal environmental changes and hurricane overwash deposition”, The Holocene 15 (7): 965-972.Download PDF

Overpeck, J.T., Liu, K.B., Morrill, C. Cole, J., Shen, C., Anderson, D., and Tang, L., 2005. “Holocene environmental change in the Himalayan-Tibetan Plateau region: Lake sediments and the future”. In: U.M. Huber, H.K.M. Bugmann, and M.A. Reasoner (eds.), Global Change and Mountain Regions: An Overview of Current Knowledge. Springer, Boston, pp. 83-92. Download PDF

Shen, C.M., Tang, L.Y., Wang, S.M., Li, C.H., and Liu, K.B., 2005. “Pollen records and time scale for the RM core of the Zoige Basin, northeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau”, Chinese Science Bulletin 50(6): 553-562. Download PDF

Reese, C.A. and Liu, K.B., 2005. “Interannual variability in pollen dispersal and deposition on the tropical Quelccaya Ice Cap”, Professional Geographer 57(2): 185-197. Download PDF

Reese, C.A. and Liu, K.B., 2005. “A modern pollen rain study from the central Andes region of South America”, Journal of Biogeography 32: 709-718. Download PDF

Liu, K.B., 2004. “Paleotempestology: Principles, methods, and examples from Gulf coast lake-sediments”. In: Murnane, R. and Liu, K.B. (eds.): Hurricanes and Typhoons: Past, Present, and Future. Columbia University Press, New York, pp. 13-57.

Louie, K.S. and Liu, K.B., 2004. “Ancient records of typhoons in Chinese historical documents”. In Murnane, R. and Liu, K.B. (eds.): Hurricanes and Typhoons: Past, Present, and Future. Columbia University Press, New York, pp. 222-248.

Murnane, R. and Liu, K.B., 2004. "Conclusion". In Murnane, R. and Liu, K.B. (eds.): Hurricanes and Typhoons: Past, Present, and Future. Columbia University Press, New York, pp. 441-446.

Liu, K.B., 2004. “Paleotempestology: Geographic solutions to hurricane hazard assessment and risk prediction”. In: D. Janelle, B. Warf, and K. Hansen (eds.), WorldMinds: Geographical Perspectives on 100 Problems. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp. 443-448.

Elsner, J.B. and Liu, K.B., 2003. “Examining the ENSO-Typhoon hypothesis”, Climate Research 25(1): 43-54. Download PDF

Reese, C.A., Liu, K.B., and Mountain, K.R., 2003. “Pollen dispersal and deposition on the ice cap of Volcan Parinacota, southwestern Bolivia”, Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research 35(4): 58-63. Download PDF

Liu, K.B., Lu, H.Y., and Shen, C.M., 2003. “Assessing the vulnerability of the Alabama Gulf coast to intense hurricane strikes and forest fires in the light of long-term climatic changes”. In: Ning, Z.H., Turner, R.E., Doyle, T., and Abdollahi, K. (eds), Integrated Assessment of the Climate Change Impacts on the Gulf Coast Region, Gulf Coast Regional Climate Change Council, Baton Rouge, pp. 223-230. Download PDF

Lu, H.Y. and Liu, K.B., 2003. “Phytoliths of common grasses in the coastal environments of south eastern USA”. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 58(3): 587-600. Download PDF

Louie, K.S. and Liu, K.B., 2003. “Earliest historical records of typhoons in China”. Journal of Historical Geography 29 (3): 299-316. Download PDF

Lu, H.Y. and Liu, K.B., 2003. “Morphological variations of lobate phytoliths from grasses in China and the south-eastern United States”. Diversity and Distributions 9: 73-87. Download PDF

Lu, H.Y., Jia, J.W., Wang, W.M., Wang, Y.J., and Liu, K.B., 2002. “On the meaning of phytolith and its classification in Gramineae”. Acta Micropalaeontologica Sinica 19: 389-396.

Liu, K.B. and Fearn, M.L., 2002. “Lake sediment evidence of coastal geologic evolution and hurricane history from Western Lake, Florida: Reply to Otvos”, Quaternary Research 57: 429-431. Download PDF

Liu, K.B., 2002. “Biogeography at LSU”, in: Steinberg, M.K. and Hudson, P.F. (eds.), Cultural and Physical Expositions: Geographic Studies in the Southern United States and Latin America, Geoscience and Man 36, Geoscience Publications, Department of Geography and Anthropology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, pp. 233-259

Reese, C.A. and Liu, K.B., 2002. “Pollen dispersal and deposition on the Quelccaya Ice Cap”, Physical Geography 23: 44-58. Download PDF

Maxwell, A. and Liu, K.B., 2002. "Late Quaternary pollen and associated records from the monsoonal areas of continental South and SE Asia", in: Kershaw, P., David, B., Tapper, N., Penny, D., and Brown, J. (eds.), Bridging Wallace’s Line: The Environmental and Cultural History and Dynamics of the SE-Asian-Australian Region, Advances in GeoEcology 34, Catena Verlag, Reiskirchen, pp. 189-228. Download PDF

Liu, K.B., Shen, C., and Louie, K.S., 2001. “A 1000-year history of typhoon landfalls in Guangdong, southern China, reconstructed from Chinese historical documentary records”, Annals of the Association of American Geographers 91: 453-464. Download PDF

Reese, C.A., 2000. “Late-Holocene vegetation changes at Bluff Swamp, Louisiana”, M.S. thesis, 102 p. Download PDF

Chen, X.D. and 22 others (including Liu, K.B.), 2001. “Simulation of China biome reconstruction based on pollen data from surface sediment samples”. Acta Botanica Sinica 43 (2): 201-209.

Liu, K.B. and Fearn, M.L., 2000. "Reconstruction of prehistoric landfall frequencies of catastrophic hurricanes in northwestern Florida from lake sediment records”, Quaternary Research 54: 238-245. Download PDF

Liu, K.B. and Fearn, M.L., 2000. "Holocene history of catastrophic hurricane landfalls along the Gulf of Mexico coast reconstructed from coastal lake and marsh sediments", in: Ning, Z.H. and Abdollahi, K.K. (eds.), Current Stresses and Potential Vulnerabilities: Implications of Global Change for the Gulf Coast Region of the United States, Gulf Coast Regional Climate Change Council, Franklin Press, Baton Rouge, pp. 38-47. Download PDF

Elsner, J.B., Liu, K.B., and Kocher, B.L., 2000. "Spatial variations in major U.S. hurricane activity: Statistics and a physical mechanism", Journal of Climate 13: 2293-2305. Download PDF

Murnane, R.J., Barton, C., Collins, E., Donnelly, J., Elsner, J., Emanuel, K., Ginis, I., Howard, S., Landsea, C., Liu, K.B., Malmquist, D., McKay, M., Michaels, A., Nelson, N., O’Brien, J., Scott, D., Webb III, T., 2000. “Model estimates hurricane wind speed probabilities”, EOS, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union 81(38), 433-438. Download PDF

Tang, L.Y., Shen, C.M., Liu, K.B., and Overpeck, J.T., 2000. "Changes in South Asian monsoon: New high-resolution paleoclimatic records from Tibet, China", Chinese Science Bulletin 45 (1): 87-90. Download PDF

Yu, G. and 30 others arranged alphabetically (including Liu, K.B.), 2000. “Paleovegetation of China: A pollen data-based synthesis for the mid-Holocene and last glacial maximum”, Journal of Biogeography 27: 635-664. Download PDF

Members of China Quaternary Pollen Data Base (23 authors including Liu, K.B.), 2000. “Pollen-based biome reconstruction at Middle Holocene (6 ka BP) and Last Glacial Maximum (18 ka BP) in China”, Acta Botanica Sinica 42:1201-1209 (in Chinese).

Tang, L.Y., Shen, C.M., Liu, K.B., and Overpeck, J.T., 1999. "New high-resolution pollen records from two lakes in Xizang (Tibet)", Acta Botanica Sinica 41 (8): 896-902 (in Chinese).

Tang, L.Y., Shen, C.M., Liu, K.B., and Overpeck, J.T., 1999. "Changes in the South Asian paleomonsoon: New high-resolution paleoclimatic records from Tibet", Kexue Tongbao 44 (18): 2004-2008 (in Chinese).

Liu, K.B., Yao, Z., and Thompson, L.G., 1998. "A pollen record of Holocene climatic changes from the Dunde ice cap, Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau", Geology 26: 135-138. Download PDF

Kremenetski, C.V., Liu, K.B., and MacDonald, G.M., 1998. "The late Quaternary dynamics of pines in northern Asia", in: Richardson, D.M. (ed.), Ecology and Biogeography of Pinus, Chapter 4, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 95-106. Download PDF

Tang, L.Y., Shen, C.M., Kong, Z.Z., Wang, F.B., and Liu, K.B., 1998. "Pollen evidence of climate during the Last Glacial Maximum in eastern Tibetan Plateau", Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology 20:133-140 (in Chinese).

McAndrews, J. H., Liu, K. B., Manville, G. C., Prest, V. K., and Vincent, J.-S., 1998. "Environmental change after 9000 B.C.," in W.G. Dean and G.J. Matthews (eds.), Concise Historical Atlas of Canada, Plate 1; University of Toronto Press, Toronto.

Fearn, M.L. and Liu, K.B., 1997. "Identification of maize pollen: Reply to Eubanks", American Antiquity 62: 146-148. Download PDF

Colinvaux, P.A., Liu, K.B., De Oliveira, P., Bush, M.B., Miller, M.C., Piperno, D.R., and Steinitz-Kannan, M., 1996. "Temperature depression in the lowland tropics in glacial times," Climatic Change 32: 19-33. Download PDF

Lam, N.S.N. and Liu, K.B., 1996. "Generation of a national rural sampling frame for HIV/AIDS research using space-filling curves", Professional Geographer 48: 321-332.

Lam, N.S.N., M. Fan, and Liu, K.B., 1996. "Spatial-temporal spread of the AIDS epidemic, 1982-1990: A correlogram analysis of four regions of the United States", Geographical Analysis 28(2): 93-107.

Thompson, L.G., Moseley-Thompson, E., Davis, M.E., Lin, P-N., Henderson, K.A., Cole-Dai, J., Bolzan, J.F., Liu, K.B., 1995. "Late Glacial Stage and Holocene tropical ice core records from Huascaran, Peru", Science 269: 46-50. Download PDF

Fearn, M.L. and Liu, K.B., 1995. "Maize pollen of 3500 B.P. from southern Alabama", American Antiquity 60: 109-117. Download PDF

Liu, K.B. and Qiu, H.L., 1994. "Late-Holocene pollen records of vegetational changes in China: Climate or human disturbance"? Terrestrial, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences 5(3): 120-137. Download PDF

Lam, N. S. N. and Liu, K.B., 1994. "Spread of AIDS in rural America, 1982-1990," Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 7: 485-490. Download PDF

Liu, K. B. and Fearn, M.L., 1993. "Lake sediment record of late Holocene hurricane activities from coastal Alabama," Geology 21: 793-796.

Liu, K. B., Sun, S., and Jiang, X., 1992. “Environmental Change in the Yangtze River Delta since 12,000 yr B.P.," Quaternary Research 28: 32-45. Download PDF

Liu, K. B., 1992. "The Shifting Forest Ecotone in Postglacial Northern Ontario," in Janelle, D., (ed.), Geographical Snapshots of North America. Guilford Press, New York, pp. 204-207.

Liu, K. B., 1990. "Holocene paleoecology of the boreal forest and Great Lakes-St. Lawrence forest in northern Ontario," Ecological Monographs 60(2):1 79-212. Download PDF

Chmura, G. and Liu, K. B., 1990. "Pollen in the Lower Mississippi River," Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 64: 253-261.

Bush, M. B., Colinvaux, P. A., Wiemann, M. C., Piperno, D. R., and Liu, K. B., 1990. "Late Pleistocene temperature depression and vegetation change in Ecuadorian Amazonia." Quaternary Research 34: 330-345.

Thompson, L. G., Davis, M. E., Mosley-Thompson, E., and Liu, K. B., 1988. "Pre-lncan Agricultural Activity Recorded in Dust Layers in Two Tropical Ice Cores," Nature 336: 763-765. Download PDF

Liu, K. B., 1988. "Quaternary history of the temperate forests of China," Quaternary Science Reviews, 7: 1-20.

Liu, K. B. and Colinvaux, P. A., 1988. "A 5200-year history of Amazon rain forest," Journal of Biogeography 15:231 -248. Download PDF

Ward, J. V. and Liu, K. B., 1988. "Introduction." Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 55:1-3.

Colinvaux, P. A., Frost, M., Frost, l., Liu, K. B., and Steinitz-Kannan, M., 1988. "Three pollen diagrams of forest disturbance in the Western Amazon," Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology. 55:73-81.

Colinvaux, P. A., Olson, K. N., and Liu, K. B., 1988. "Late-glacial and Holocene pollen diagrams from two endorheic lakes of the inter-Andean Plateau of Ecuador," Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology. 55:83-99.

Colinvaux, P. A. and Liu, K. B., 1987. "The Late Quaternary climate of the Amazon Basin," in Berger, W. H. and Labeyrie, L. D. (ed.) Abrupt Climatic Change, pp. 113-122, D. Riedel, Dordrecht, Netherlands.

McAndrews, J. H., Liu, K. B., Manville, G. C., Prest, V. K., and Vincent, J.-S., 1987. "The Environment after 9000 B.C.," in R.C. Harris, (ed.), Historical Atlas of Canada, Vol. 1, Plate 4; University of Toronto Press, Toronto.

Liu, K. B. and Colinvaux, P. A., 1985. "Forest changes in the Amazon Basin in the last glacial maximum," Nature 318: 556-557.

Colinvaux, P. A., Miller, M. C., Liu, K. B., Steinitz-Kannan, M., and Frost, l. G., 1985. "Discovery of permanent Amazon lakes and hydraulic disturbance in the upper Amazon Basin," Nature 313:42-45 Download PDF

Liu, K. B. and Lam, N. S. N., 1985. "Paleovegetational reconstruction based on modern and fossil pollen data: An application of discriminant analysis," Annals of the Association of American Geographers 75:115-130. Download PDF



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